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Blue Hound Books Group

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Ashley Tucker
Ashley Tucker

Crack Active Reports 7 95



The emergence of crack in the spring of 1986 and a flood of lurid and often exaggerated press accounts of inner-city crack use ushered in a period of intense public concern about illegal drugs, and helped reinforce the impression that drug use was primarily a minority problem. Enforcement of the nation's drug laws at the street level focused more and more on poor communities of color. In the mid- to late-1980s, many cities initiated major law enforcement programs to deal with street-level drug dealing. "Operation Pressure Point" in New York was an attempt to rid the predominantly Hispanic Lower East Side of the drug trade. Operation Invincible in Memphis, Operation Clean Sweep in Chicago, Operation Hammer in Los Angeles, and the Red Dog Squad in Atlanta all targeted poor, minority, urban neighborhoods where drug dealing tended to be open and easy to detect.




crack active reports 7 95



According to the government's own reports, 80 percent of the country's cocaine users are white, and the "typical cocaine user is a middle-class, white suburbanite." But law enforcement tactics that concentrated on the inner city drug trade were very visibly filling the jails and prisons with minority drug law offenders, feeding the misperception that most drug users and dealers were black and Latino. Thus a "drug courier profile" with unmistakable racial overtones took hold in law enforcement.


In the 1980s, with the emergence of the crack market, skin color alone became a major profile component, and, to an increasing extent, black travelers in the nation's airports and found themselves the subjects of frequent interrogations and suspicionless searches by the DEA and the U.S. Customs Service. These law enforcement practices soon spread to train stations and bus terminals, as well.


Of course, media fascination with a social problem does not necessarily make it "real," any more than lack of media coverage makes it nonexistent. But the dozens of stories in the press and on the airwaves, combined with the statistical reports, the lawsuits, and recent legislative action, make a powerful argument that "driving while black" is not just an occasional problem.


In July 1998, the ACLU issued its Fourth Monitoring Report: Pedestrian and Car Stop Audit. The report was based on data derived from all incident reports of car stops initiated by the Philadelphia police in four specific police districts during the week of October 6, 1997, and by the officers of the Narcotics Unit during the month of August, 1997.


The police districts chosen for analysis encompassed communities that are relatively integrated. The incident reports disclosed that where a reason is given for a car stop, in virtually all cases the precipitating event was an alleged traffic violation.


The data, however, reflect stops of minority drivers at a highly significant disparate rate. For the week of March 7, 1997, of the 516 incident reports which were generated pursuant to police car stops, 262 contain racial and/or ethnic data about the individual(s). Of these 262 stops, 85.9 percent were of minorities as shown below:


With slightly twice as much data to work with for the week of October 6, 1997 (as a result of requesting incident reports from an additional district), of the 1,083 car stops, race was recorded for 524 instances. Of these 524 stops, 71.1 percent were of minorities as shown below:


(7) Ten squeezes are repeated rapidly and then the test subject is asked whether the saccharin can be tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the sweet taste during the ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as ten regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.


(8) If the first response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the saccharin is tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the sweet taste during the second ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as twenty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.


(9) If the second response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the saccharin is tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the sweet taste during the third set of ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as thirty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.


(7) An initial ten squeezes are repeated rapidly and then the test subject is asked whether the Bitrex can be tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the bitter taste during the ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as ten regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.


(8) If the first response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the Bitrex is tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the bitter taste during the second ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as twenty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.


(9) If the second response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the Bitrex is tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the bitter taste during the third set of ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as thirty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.


Nipple pain and damage in breastfeeding mothers are common causes of premature breastfeeding cessation. Peppermint water is popularly used for the prevention of nipple cracks in the North West of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of peppermint water in the prevention of nipple cracks during breastfeeding in comparison with the application of expressed breast milk (EBM).


Women who were randomized to receive peppermint water were less likely to experience nipple and areola cracks (9%) compared to women using EBM (27%; p


Natural remedies in conjunction with medical care may provide relief from breastfeeding problems [16, 17]. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and its oil are used extensively in foods and drugs [18]. Menthol, which is found in the highest concentration in peppermint oil, is pharmacologically active in relatively small doses. In small doses, it is safe for ingestion by babies and has been widely used over many years as a calming agent to soothe an upset stomach. As is observed with numerous other volatile oils, peppermint water possesses antibacterial activity [19]. Because it has calming and numbing effects, it has been used externally for skin anaesthetic, burns, wounds, itching and inflammation. Peppermint water is popularly used for the prevention of nipple pain and damage in Azarbayejan Province, North West of Iran; however, this has not been evaluated previously.


In a pilot study, which we carried out in Alzahra Research and Development Center of Clinical Studies, the topical use of household peppermint water by new breastfeeding mothers was more effective than expressed breast milk in the prevention of nipple cracks (10% compared to 40%). Therefore, we conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of a topical preparation of peppermint water in comparison with that of expressed breast milk for the prevention of nipple cracks in primiparous breastfeeding women.


The follow-up telephone interviews were conducted by a trained midwife at days 4, 8 and 14 postpartum. In the case of nipple or areola crack and pain, both examination of the breast and the scoring were carried out by one researcher according to published methods [10, 20]. All mothers were asked about the frequency and duration of breastfeeding at 24 hours and the data were recorded. A follow-up visit was arranged for both groups one week after recruitment (day eight) or at any time during the trial course in the case of nipple crack or pain.


The sample size of the study was determined according to the pilot study by Cochran formula (estimation of percent and ratio) of n = t 2 p q d 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaacqWGUbGBcqGH9aqpdaWcaaqaaiabdsha0naaCaaaleqabaGaeGOmaidaaOGaemiCaaNaemyCaehabaGaemizaq2aaWbaaSqabeaacqaIYaGmaaaaaaaa@3705@ with a confidence of 95%, where t is the confidence level, p is the ratio of the number of subjects showed nipple crack (n = 18) to the total number of subjects in the pilot study (n = 30), q is the ratio of the subjects did not show nipple crack (n = 12) to the total number of subjects in the pilot study (n = 30), and d is 8% of the obtained value for p [21]. Therefore, the number of subjects in the present study was calculated as: (1.96)2 0.6 0.4/(0.075)2 = 196.


The overall nipple crack rate in the peppermint water and expressed breast milk groups were 7% and 23%, respectively which was statistically significant (p


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